Archives: DDI

Facet Hypertrophy

History and Epidemiology Facet hypertrophy is a common condition that occurs when the facet joints in the spine become enlarged. The facet joints are synovial joints in the spine where two vertebrae come into contact. They help to stabilize the spine during bending and twisting motions. Facet hypertrophy can be unilateral or bilateral and can…

GPA Vasculitis

History and Epidemiology Granulomatosis with polyangiitis1 (GPA) vasculitis is a rare autoimmune disorder that attacks the blood vessels, causing inflammation and damage. It affects approximately three out of every 100,000 people.1 The condition can occur at any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in Caucasian adults between 40 and 65 years of age.1 GPA…

Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis

History & Epidemiology Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases that feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis refers to vasculitis of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. Because these blood vessels are so important to the function of the CNS, vasculitis can lead…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

History of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Lupus was first described in 1833 by Biett and his student Cazenave. The term lupus is Latin for “wolf” and describes the facial rash seen in affected patients due to its apparent resemblance to a wolf bite. The facial rash first described in 1833 was initially termed erythema centrifugum. The…

Psoriatic Arthritis

History of Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a complex inflammatory condition with a wide range of clinical manifestations that can worsen psoriasis of the skin or nails in up to 30% of cases. There are no diagnostic criteria or testing for PsA. Inflammatory musculoskeletal characteristics in the joints, entheses, or spine are most typically…

Hemochromatosis

History Hemochromatosis is a disorder in which excess iron accumulates in the body, potentially leading to multiple organ dysfunction.1 Parts of the body that may be affected by hemochromatosis include the liver, thyroid, heart, pancreas, skin, joints, pituitary gland, and gonads.1 Hemochromatosis was first described in medical literature in 1865 by Armand Trousseau within French pathology…

Scleroderma

History of Scleroderma The first account of a person with scleroderma may have been described by Hippocrats when he wrote about an Athenian patient whose skin could not be raised in folds because it was so hard.1 In modern times, the earliest description of the condition is attributed to Carlo Curzio, an Italian doctor, who reported…

Behçet’s Disease

History and Epidemiology Behçet’s disease — also known as Behçet’s syndrome, Behçet’s vasculitis, Adamantiades-Behçet’s syndrome, and Silk Road disease — is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting multiple systems throughout the body. Symptoms of Behçet’s disease may have been described as early as the 5th century by Hippocrates1 and were reported by Adamantiades, another Greek physician, in 1931.2…

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

History Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders that primarily affects the skin, joints, and blood vessel walls1 but can affect every organ system and result in significant morbidity and mortality.2 Typical clinical manifestations are skin hyperelasticity, hypermobility of joints, the fragility of blood vessels, 2 and atrophic scarring. In 1936 the syndrome was given…

Osteoarthritis

History of Osteoarthritis The leading form of arthritis, osteoarthritis has a slow onset, progressing over years and even decades. As people are living longer, the prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing; symptoms typically appear after age 40. Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing joints especially the knee and hip; it rarely starts with smaller joints. Osteoarthritis is the leading…

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