Archives: DDI

Drug-Induced Lupus

Epidemiology Drug-induced lupus occurs in people who take certain types of medication but it is not considered a drug side effect.1, 2 Flare ups caused by medications taken for pre-existing or latent lupus are excluded from this diagnosis.1 With drug-induced lupus, specific drugs trigger an autoimmune reaction and the production of autoantibodies.3 There are three types of…

Ankylosing Spondylitis

History  Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the axial skeleton, peripheral joints, entheses, eyes, skin, and intestines and is characterized by inflammatory back pain, radiographic sacroiliitis, excess spinal bone formation, and a high prevalence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27.1,2 Clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis include back pain, progressive spinal rigidity, and…

Gout

History Historically, gout was seen in individuals with access to an abundance of protein-rich food and alcohol, leading scholars to coin the phrase “arthritis of the rich” to describe gout. Monarchs, who often indulged in feasts served with wine and beer, would be the highest risk group for developing gout, which led to other colloquialisms…

Raynaud’s Syndrome

History Raynaud’s syndrome, or Raynaud’s phenomenon, is a rare disorder that affects the cutaneous arterioles and can cause them to abnormally vasoconstrict, temporarily limiting blood flow. The most common symptoms are episodes of coldness, numbness, and tingling in the fingers or toes. First described by Maurice Raynaud in 1862 as “local asphyxia of extremities,” Raynaud’s…

Viral Arthritis

Epidemiology Viral arthritis and arthralgias can be caused by or accompany several types of viral infections.1 Parvovirus, Hepatitis B and C, rubella, Epstein-Barr, alphaviruses, and Zika are among the most common viral agents associated with arthritis, while mumps, enteroviruses, and herpes viruses are some of the less common etiologies. While viral arthritis may be confused…

Degenerative Disc Disease

History The term degenerative disc disease (DDD) represents a complicated idea. In one meta-analysis of 402 publications, investigators found the term used to incorporate multiple conditions, including spinal compression, pinched nerve, and back or neck pain. In many cases, disc degenerative disease was equated with disc degeneration regardless of symptoms or with discogenic pain or…

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is a histopathologic description of when vasculitis occurs in the small vessels of the skin or organs due to inflammation caused by neutrophils with leukocytoclasia.1 Epidemiology There is significant confusion around the naming of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It is often misused as a descriptor of a specific disease or type of vasculitis, when…

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