The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases includes chronic pain in the “Symptoms, Signs or Clinical Findings” category.
This rise in prescribing of prescription opioids in the last 2 decades of the 20th century occurred at a time during which medical professionals were urged to resort to prescription opioids to manage untreated and chronic noncancer pain.
If physicians have a genuine interest in acting with beneficence and nonmaleficence, they should recognize that their prescribing habits have significant consequences for their patients.
Anthony Mariano, PhD, gives insight into dealing with patients’ demands for opioids.
Increasing evidence supports the notion that an individual’s specific response to pain or pain treatments may be affected by particular gene polymorphisms.